Advances in brain computer interfaces, neural implants, optogenetics and electroceuticals sit among the neurobionic innovations that have far-reaching implications for bionics end users,
Neurobionics is the science of directly integrating electronics with the nervous system to repair or replace impaired functions. Brain-computer interfaces play a key role, establishing links to the brain through scalp, subdural or intracortical electrodes.
Most BCIs are non-invasive (using brain signals and stimulation via EMG, EEG or near-infrared stimulation) to monitor and treat chronic health conditions e.g., epilepsy, autism, depression and other conditions including dementia. However, BCIs are also used to restore, augment or enhance human capabilities.
Examples of these human capabilities (e.g., delivered by NeuroNode Trilogy) is the ability for people living with a disability, disease, brain or spinal injury to communicate via a computer or word processor, to control their wheelchair and/or a prosthetic device. However, BCIs are also increasingly viewed as a key element in purpose-built smart home environments of those living with a disability. For example, a cognitive controller system known as BCI based Smart Living Environmental Auto –Adjusted Control System (BSLEACS) detects the mental state of the user and adjusts the nearby home environment accordingly.
BCIs are also being developed to enable paraplegic patients to control robotic exoskeletons and improve control of movement disorders. Most neural interfaces have an electrical interface to the tissue, where small stimulating or recording electrodes are placed in proximity to the area of interest. Usually there is a trade-off between the invasiveness of a high precision electrode (for instance penetrating deep brain stimulating electrodes) compared to less spatially precise surface mounted electrodes (for instance electrocorticography or electroencephalography).
In contrast to other BCIs, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an invasive technique used to treat a range of chronic diseases e.g., Parkinson’s Disease and tremors associated with other neural disorders. DBS involves direct access to tiny areas in the brain and many people with significant tremors see lifechanging results from this technique. DBS is now a well-established treatment with research continuing on its varied applications. Work is progressing on the use of DBS to treat memory loss with closed-loop neuro-prosthesis systems used to simultaneously record brain signals and achieve precisely timed stimulation.
Clinical and community interest in neural interfaces has heightened markedly over the past decade and this is in evidence to a greater extent as new technologies and treatments emerge e.g., optogenetics and electroceuticals.
In particular, optogenetics holds a great deal of promise for neural control of bionic devices and limbs. Genetically modified target neurons are activated by visible light, infrared neural stimulation, nanoparticle-enhanced optical stimulation, and photochemical tools. The prime purpose of neurobionic devices is to help people with disabilities. However, looking ahead, memory augmentation, cognitive enhancement, infrared vision and exoskeletal enhancement of physical performance will all advance markedly.
Electroceuticals is a further exciting area of growth bringing novel bio-compatible materials, miniaturized electronics, software, stimulation patterns, and electrode geometry. There is considerable interest in how electroceutical devices and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) produce therapeutic effects across such a wide range of chronic conditions e.g., inflammatory diseases, functional GI disease, obesity and diabetes. A deeper understanding of the molecular and neurophysiological changes that VNS brings about is especially important in designing future therapies.
Winners of the Bionics, the Brain, Neurotech and AI Challenge will deliver a ‘nextgen’ innovation with practical benefits for health consumers in one of the following areas:
Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) or brain-device interfaces, AI-enabled implanted devices or wearables that enable communication (interaction between thought, message formulation, speech and/or other communication)
BCI, deep brain stimulation and AI-enabled devices that contribute to improved treatments and functionality for people living with emotional or nervous disorders, epilepsy, disabilities caused by stroke or spinal cord injury, chronic peripheral neuropathies and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Parkinson’s disease, MND, cerebral palsy)
Electroceuticals that produce therapeutic effects across a wide range of chronic conditions e.g., inflammatory diseases, functional GI disease, obesity and diabetes
Optogenetics where modified target neurons are activated by visible light, infrared neural stimulation or nanoparticle-enhanced optical stimulation i.e. to enable or restore human functions.
Bionics Challenge 2021
This years Bionics Challenge, delivered in partnership with the Motor Accident Insurance Commission (Qld) has an overall $300,000 in combined Cash Prizes, Mentoring and Acceleration.
Motor Accident Insurance Commission
The Motor Accident Insurance Commission (MAIC) Queensland is our major funding partner. The rehabilitation of Queenslanders impacted by road accident trauma, disabilities and chronic health conditions underpins our highly valued partnership.